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Uk personalausweis

uk personalausweis

Bislang war ein Personalausweis Pflicht. Jetzt stellt sich die Frage, ob künftig der Reisepass oder sogar ein Visum erforderlich ist. Wahrscheinlicher ist laut dem. mit ihrem internationalen Personalausweis für einen unbegrenzten Zeitraum dann raten wir Ihnen, einen British Residents Permit zu beantragen und sich. Sept. Für die Einreise nach England den Personalausweis oder den Reisepass mitnehmen? Wie genau die Bestimmungen für Ihren Urlaub sind.

Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation , the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.

A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley.

The patron saint of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination.

There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since Especially since the s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration.

A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions , Druidry , and Heathenry.

According to the UK Census , there are roughly 53, people who identify as Pagan in England, [nb 5] and 3, in Wales , [nb 5] including 11, Wiccans in England and in Wales.

The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education.

Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school.

Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations.

Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. Further education colleges particularly sixth form colleges often form part of a secondary school site.

A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university.

Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive , in some areas there are selective intake grammar schools , to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam.

Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree.

The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England. Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years.

Since the establishment of Bedford College London , Girton College Cambridge and Somerville College Oxford in the 19th century , women also can obtain a university degree.

Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno — Saxon monasticism , [] [] to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings.

After the Norman conquest in various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion.

Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral , Westminster Abbey and York Minster.

Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch , was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically.

In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.

Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this.

With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.

Since the s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.

English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions.

Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith , [] others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.

During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth.

Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore.

Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry , Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.

The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.

Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast , featuring a roasted joint usually beef, lamb , chicken or pork served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.

Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest.

Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries , have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick — all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding.

Sweet pastries include scones either plain or containing dried fruit served with jam or cream, dried fruit loaves, Eccles cakes and mince pies as well as a wide range of sweet or spiced biscuits.

Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza , [] and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers , such as bitter , mild , stout and brown ale.

The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire , Northumberland and Cumbria , but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.

There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein , natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.

Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth , [] while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.

More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. The English played a significant role in romanticism: In response to the Industrial Revolution , agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett , G.

Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism , Arthur Penty , and cooperative movement advocate G.

Cole are somewhat related. Wells and Lewis Carroll. Lawrence , Virginia Woolf , C. Tolkien , and J. The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties , jigs , hornpipes and dance music.

It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. German-born George Frideric Handel became a British subject [] and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah , Water Music , and Music for the Royal Fireworks.

In the field of popular music , many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time.

Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury , V Festival , and the Reading and Leeds Festivals.

Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers. A Story of the London Fog , helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his film, Blackmail , is often regarded as the first British sound feature film.

Major film studios in England include Pinewood , Elstree and Shepperton. Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises Harry Potter and James Bond.

English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England.

It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Its collection of more than seven million objects [] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, [] sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.

England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world. Sports originating in England include association football , [] cricket , rugby union , rugby league , tennis , boxing , badminton, squash , [] rounders , [] hockey , snooker , billiards , darts , table tennis, bowls , netball , thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting.

It has helped the development of golf , sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team , whose home venue is Wembley Stadium , played Scotland in the first ever international football match in As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants.

Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.

The climax of the Ashes was viewed by 7. However they have hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in , winning this format in beating rivals Australia in the final.

William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. England competes in the Commonwealth Games , held every four years.

Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England.

Rugby union originated in Rugby School , Warwickshire in the early 19th century. England was one of the host nations of the competition in the Rugby World Cup and also hosted the Rugby World Cup.

Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in Since , the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team , which won three World Cups but is now retired.

Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire , Yorkshire and Cumbria. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors , Hull F.

Golf has been prominent in England; due in part to its cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of Golf. England has produced grand slam winners: The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup , is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy.

Tennis was created in Birmingham in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.

Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles [] and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins.

English women who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones in and Virginia Wade in In boxing , under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules , England has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies.

Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. England also has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle racing , the premier championship of motorcycle road racing , and produced several World Champions across all the various class of motorcycle: Darts is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game.

Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships.

Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa. The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean.

A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George , along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner.

The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace. It is also known as the Rose of England.

The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy.

England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: St George is the patron saint of England.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see England disambiguation.

Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction. England in the Middle Ages. East Riding of Yorkshire. Ceremonial counties of England.

List of places in England. List of English inventions and discoveries and Royal Society. English diaspora , Cornish people , and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom.

English language in England. English language , History of the English language , and Cornish language. Official, but not majority language.

History of Christianity in England. List of universities in England. Fish and chips is a very popular dish in England.

Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages. Chicken tikka masala , , adapted from Indian chicken tikka and called "a true British national dish.

This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself.

This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. Folk music of England. Music of the United Kingdom. Cinema of the United Kingdom.

List of museums in England. National symbols of England. England portal United Kingdom portal. Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number.

Other Pagan paths, such as Druidism, and general "Pagan" have not been included in this number. Scottish students attending Scottish universities have their fees paid by the devolved Scottish Parliament.

Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 18 April Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 1 February Archived from the original on 9 February International Organization for Standardization.

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Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 4 December Retrieved 25 January The religious settlement that eventually emerged in the reign of Elizabeth gave the Church of England the distinctive identity that it has retained to this day.

It resulted in a Church that consciously retained a large amount of continuity with the Church of the Patristic and Medieval periods in terms of its use of the catholic creeds, its pattern of ministry, its buildings and aspects of its liturgy, but which also embodied Protestant insights in its theology and in the overall shape of its liturgical practice.

Archived from the original on 13 August Archived from the original on 21 July Jews and England" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 21 July Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 16 September QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited.

Retrieved 6 June Retrieved 20 June Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 24 June Retrieved 19 April By , it is estimated that approximately million Indonesian nationals will have an e-KTP issued to them.

In other pages of the Shenasnameh, their marriage status, spouse s name s , names of children, date of every vote cast and eventually their death would be recorded.

Every Iranian permanent resident above the age of 15 must hold a valid National Identity Card Persian: In order to apply for an NID card, the applicant must be at least 15 years old and have a photograph attached to their Birth Certificate , which is undertaken by the Vital Records branch.

The card is designed in a bilingual form, printed in Hebrew and Arabic , however, the personal data is presented in Hebrew by default and may be presented in Arabic as well if the owner decides so.

The card must be presented to an official on duty e. Until the mids, the identification card was considered the only legally reliable document for many actions such as voting or opening a bank account.

In other situations any government-issued photo ID, such as a passport or a military ID, may suffice. The Palestinian Authority Issues Identification card following agreements with Israel since in accordance to the Oslo Accords , the data is forwarded to Israeli database and confirmed.

In February , a presidential decision issued by Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas to abolish the religion field was announced. The decision was criticized by Hamas officials in Gaza Strip , saying it is unconstitutional and will not be implemented in Gaza because it undermines the Palestinian cause.

Japanese citizens are not required to have identification documents with them within the territory of Japan. The Macau Resident Identity Card is an official identity document issued by the Identification Department to permanent residents and non-permanent residents.

In Malaysia, the MyKad is the compulsory identity document for Malaysian citizens aged 12 and above. Introduced by the National Registration Department of Malaysia on 5 September as one of four MSC Malaysia flagship applications [36] and a replacement for the High Quality Identity Card Kad Pengenalan Bermutu Tinggi , Malaysia became the first country in the world to use an identification card that incorporates both photo identification and fingerprint biometric data on an in-built computer chip embedded in a piece of plastic.

A new Philippines identity card known as the Philippine Identification System PhilSys ID card will start to be issued in August to Filipino citizens and foreign residents aged 18 and above.

The card is necessary not only for procedures of state but also in the day-to-day transactions of registering for a mobile phone line, obtaining certain discounts at stores, and logging on to certain websites on the internet.

Schools frequently use it to identify students, both on-line and in exams. It has had several changes in its history, the most recent form is a plastic card meeting the ISO standard.

A hologram technology is applied for the purpose of hampering forgery. The E- National Identity Card abbreviation: The Registration of Persons Act No.

The NIC number is used for unique personal identification, similar to the social security number in the US. Each NIC has a unique 10 digit number, in the format A where 0 is a digit and A is a letter.

The first two digits of the number are your year of birth e. An NIC number is required to apply for a passport over 16 , driving license over 18 and to vote over In addition, all citizens are required to carry their NIC on them at all times as proof of identity, given the security situation in the country.

NICs are not issued to non-citizens, who are still required to carry a form of photo identification such as a photocopy of their passport or foreign driving license at all times.

At times the Postal ID card may also be used. The "National Identification Card" Chinese: The Identification Card is used for virtually all activities that require identity verification within Taiwan such as opening bank accounts, renting apartments, employment applications and voting.

If residents move, they must re-register at a municipal office Chinese: ROC nationals with household registration in Taiwan are known as "registered nationals".

ROC nationals who do not have household registration in Taiwan known as "unregistered nationals" do not qualify for the Identification Card and its associated privileges e.

All individuals are mandated to apply for the ID card at all ages. For individuals of 15 years and above, fingerprint biometrics 10 fingerprints, palm, and writer are captured in the registration process.

The Identity Card is a smart card that has a state-of-art technology in the smart cards field with very high security features which make it difficult to duplicate.

It is a KB Combi Smart Card, where the electronic chip includes personal information, 2 fingerprints, 4-digit pin code, digital signature, and certificates digital and encryption.

Personal photo, IDN, name, date of birth, signature, nationality, and the ID card expiry date are fields visible on the physical card. In the UAE it is used as an official identification document for all individuals to benefit from services in the government, some of the non-government, and private entities in the UAE.

The ID card could also be used by citizens as an official travel document between GCC countries instead of using passports.

The implementation of the national ID program in the UAE enhanced security of the individuals by protecting their identities and preventing identity theft.

National identity cards issued to citizens of the EEA European Union , Iceland , Liechtenstein , Norway and Switzerland , which states EEA or Swiss citizenship, can not only be used as an identity document within the home country, but also as a travel document to exercise the right of free movement in the EEA and Switzerland.

In this respect, the UK Presidency put forward a proposal for the EU-wide use of biometrics in national identity cards".

Since , all newly issued Belgian identity cards have a chip eID card , and roll-out of these cards is expected to be complete in the course of The eID cards can be used both in the public and private sector for identification and for the creation of legally binding electronic signatures.

Until end Belgian consulates issued old style ID cards x 75 mm to Belgian citizens who were permanently residing in their jurisdiction and who chose to be registered at the consulate which is strongly advised.

Since Belgian consulates issue electronic ID cards, the electronic chip on which is not activated however. In Bulgaria , it is obligatory to possess an identity card Bulgarian — лична карта, lichna karta at the age of All persons over the age of 18 must have an Identity Card and carry it at all times.

The design of the Croatian ID card is prepared for future installation of an Electronic identity card chip, which is set for implementation in The acquisition and possession of a Civil Identity Card is compulsory for any eligible person who has reached twelve years of age.

On 29 January , it was announced that all future IDs to be issued will be biometric. It is a valid travel document for the entire European Union.

An identity card with a photo is issued to all citizens of the Czech Republic at the age of It is officially recognised by all member states of the European Union for intra EU travel.

Travelling outside the EU mostly requires the Czech passport. Denmark is one of few EU countries that currently do not issue national identity cards not counting driving licences and passports issued for other purposes.

Danish citizens are not required by law to carry an identity card. A traditional identity document without photo , the personal identification number certificate Danish: Personnummerbevis is of little use in Danish society, as it has been largely replaced by the much more versatile National Health Insurance Card Danish: Sundhedskortet which contains the same information and more.

The National Health Insurance Card is issued to all citizens age 12 and above. It is commonly referred to as an identity card despite the fact it has no photo of the holder.

Both certificates retrieve their information from the Civil Registration System. However, the personnummerbevis is still issued today and has been since September A foreign citizen without driving skills living in Denmark can not get such documents.

Foreign driving licenses and passports are accepted with limitations. A foreigner living in Denmark will have a residence permit with their personal identification number and a photo.

In Denmark, since , counties have issued a "photo identity card" Danish: Until , the national debit card Dankort contained a photo of the holder and was widely accepted as an identity card.

The Danish banks lobbied successfully to have pictures removed from the national debit cards and so since the Dankort has no longer contained a photo.

Hence it is rarely accepted for identification. The Estonian identity card Estonian: An Estonian identity card is officially recognised by all member states of the European Union for intra EU travel.

For travelling outside the EU, Estonian citizens may also require a passport. Under Estonian law, since 15 December the cryptographic signature is legally equivalent to a manual signature.

In February , Estonia was the first country in the world to institute electronic voting for parliamentary elections. This, along with the passport, is one of two official identity documents.

Driving licenses and KELA social security cards with a photo are also widely used for general identification purposes even though they are not officially recognized as such.

However, KELA has ended the practice of issuing social security cards with the photograph of the bearer, while it has become possible to embed the social security information onto the national ID card.

For most purposes when identification is required, only valid documents are ID card, passport or driving license. However, a citizen is not required to carry any of these.

Compulsory identity documents were created before, for workers from to , nomads gens du voyage in , and foreigners in during World War I.

Identity cards were valid for 10 years, had to be updated within a year in case of change of residence, and their renewal required paying a fee.

Under the Vichy regime , in addition to the face photograph, the family name, first names, date and place of birth, the card included the national identity number managed by the national statistics INSEE , which is also used as the national service registration number, as the Social Security account number for health and retirement benefits, for access to court files and for tax purposes.

For financial transactions, ID cards and passports are almost always accepted as proof of identity. For transactions by cheque involving a larger sum, two different ID documents are frequently requested by merchants.

The current identification cards are now issued free of charge and optional, and are valid for ten years for minors, and fifteen for adults [53].

Another non-compulsory project is being discussed. It is compulsory for all German citizens aged 16 or older to possess either a Personalausweis identity card or a passport but not to carry one.

Police officers and other officials have a right to demand to see one of those documents obligation of identification ; however the law does not state that one is obliged to submit the document at that very moment.

Beginning in November , German ID cards are issued in the ID-1 format and can also contain an integrated digital signature, if so desired.

The cards have a photograph and a chip with biometric data, including, optionally, fingerprints. The cards issued were originally folded cardboard, similar to the wartime UK Identity cards abolished in There were different colours for British and non-British residents.

Gibraltar requires all residents to hold identity cards, which are issued free. In the cardboard ID card was replaced with a laminated version.

However, although valid as a travel document to the UK, they were not accepted by Spain. A new version in an EU compliant format was issued and is valid for use around the EU although as very few are seen there are sometimes problems in its use, even in the UK.

ID cards are needed for some financial transactions, but apart from that and to cross the frontier with Spain, they are not in common use.

There are also two optional fields designed to facilitate emergency medical care: ABO and Rhesus factor blood typing.

Since , name fields have been filled in both Greek and Latin characters. According to the Signpost Service of the European Commission [reply to Enquiry ], old type Greek ID cards "are as valid as the new type according to Greek law and thus they constitute valid travel documents that all other EU Member States are obliged to accept".

In addition to being equivalent to passports within the European Economic Area , Greek ID cards are the principal means of identification of voters during elections.

Since , the procedure to issue an ID card has been automated and now all citizens over 12 years of age must have an ID card, which is issued within one work day.

For instance, it is required to perform banking transactions if the teller personnel is unfamiliar with the apparent account holder, to interact with the Citizen Service Bureaus KEP , [54] receive parcels or registered mail etc.

Citizens are also required to produce their ID card at the request of law enforcement personnel. All the above functions can be fulfilled also with a valid Greek passport e.

The third type is a plastic card with the photo and the signature of the holder digitally reproduced. These are generally called Personal Identity Card.

Personal identity numbers have been issued since ; they have the following format in numbers: They are no longer used as a personal identification number, but as a statistical signature.

The Personal Identity Card is mandatory to vote in state elections or open a bank account in the country.

ID cards are issued to permanent residents of Hungary; if a foreign citizen, the card has a different color. Identity documents are not mandatory to carry by law unless driving a car , but can be needed for bank services, age verification and other situations.

Ireland does not issue mandatory national identity cards as such. Except for a brief period during the second world war when the Irish Department of External Affairs issued ID Cards to those wishing to travel to the UK, [55] Ireland has never issued national identity cards as such.

Identity documentation is optional for Irish and British citizens. Nevertheless, identification is mandatory to obtain certain services such as air travel, banking, interactions regarding welfare and public services, age verification and additional situations.

Ireland has issued optional passport cards since October Ireland issues a "Public Services Card" which are useful when identification is needed for contacts regarding welfare and public services.

They have photos but not birth dates and are therefore not accepted by banks. In a Oireachtas committee hearing held on February 22, , Tim Duggan of that department stated "A national ID card is an entirely different idea.

People are generally compelled to carry such a card. All Italian citizens are entitled to request an identity card which would be issued by the municipality in which they live.

The card lasts ten years and is a valid document to leave the country when travelling to another EU country. A classic Italian identity card now in the process of being replaced by a newer template has four pages, containing:.

A field for fingerprints has been present for a long time at the bottom of the third page, but is rarely if ever used. Also, physical features are normally not measured rigorously, but are just verbally asked to the applicant such as height or quickly ascertained by administrative personnel on the spot, with no checks for hair dying or cosmetic lenses.

The classic Italian ID card is made of paper, not plastic, and its lamination with plastic pouches is explicitly forbidden, because it would interfere with the anti-forging heat sensitive pattern on the back of the card see reference.

Furthermore, the usage of paper makes the card easy to forge, and foreign countries outside the EU sometimes refuse to accept it as a valid document.

These common criticism were considered in the development of the Italian electronic identity card , which is in the more common credit-card format.

All foreigners in Italy are required by law to have an ID with them at all times. Dutch citizens from the age of 14 are required to be able to show a valid identity document upon request by a police officer or similar official.

Furthermore, identity documents are required when opening bank accounts and upon start of work for a new employer. Official identity documents for residents in the Netherlands are:.

For the purpose of identification in public but not for other purposes , also a Dutch driving license often may serve as an identity document.

In Norway there is no law penalising non-possession of an identity document. But there are rules requiring it for services like banking, air travel and voting where personal recognition or other identification methods have not been possible.

The following documents are generally considered valid varying a little, since no law lists them: There is no ID card for anyone except bank ID card normally printed on the reverse of a credit card.

To get a bank ID card either a Nordic passport or another passport together with Norwegian residence and work permit is needed.

There is an ongoing plan to introduce a national ID card accrediting Norwegian citizenship, usable for travel within the EU, and for general identification.

The plan started in and has been delayed several times and is now expected in Polish citizens living permanently abroad are entitled, but not required, to have one.

All Portuguese citizens are required by law to obtain an Identity Card as they turn 6 years of age. They are not required to carry with them always but are obligated to present them to the lawful authorities if requested.

The old format of the cards yellow laminated paper document featured a portrait of the bearer, their fingerprint, and the name of parent s , among other information.

The CI offers proof of the identity, address, sex and other data of the possessor. It has to be renewed every 10 years.

It can be used instead of a passport for travel inside the European Union and several other countries outside the EU. Its validity extends for up to 1 year.

It cannot be used in order to travel within the EU, unlike the normal ID card. However, these are accepted only in limited circumstances and cannot take the place of the ID Card in most cases.

The ID Card is mandatory for dealing with government institutions, banks or currency exchange shops. A valid passport may also be accepted, but usually only for foreigners.

In addition, citizens can be expected to provide the personal identification number CNP in many circumstances; purposes range from simple unique identification and internal book-keeping for example when drawing up the papers for the warranty of purchased goods to being asked for identification by the police.

Presenting the ID Card is preferred but not mandatory when asked by police officers; however, in such cases people are expected to provide a CNP or alternate means of identification which can be checked on the spot via radio if needed.

The information on the ID Card is required to be kept updated by the owner; current address of domicile in particular. Doing otherwise can expose the citizen to certain fines or be denied service by those institutions that require a valid, up to date Card.

In spite of this, it is common for people to let the information lapse or go around with expired ID Cards.

The Slovak ID card Slovak: It is issued to citizens of the Slovak Republic who are 15 or older. For travel outside the EU, Slovak citizens may also require a passport , which is a legally accepted form of picture ID as well.

Police officers and some [ who? If one fails to comply, law enforcement officers are allowed to insist on personal identification at the police station.

Every Slovenian citizen regardless of age has the right to acquire an Identity Card Slovene: Osebna izkaznica where every citizen of the Republic of Slovenia of 18 years of age or older is obliged by law to acquire one and carry it at all times or any other Identity document with a picture i.

With exception of the Faroe Islands and Greenland, though it may be used to travel outside of the EU: The front side displays the name and surname, sex, nationality, date of birth and expiration date of the card, as well as the number of the ID card a black and white photograph and a signature.

Depending on the holders age and sometimes also other factors , the card had a validity of 5 years or 10 years, and 1 year for foreigners living in Slovenia.

In Slovenia the ID cards importance is equaled only by the Slovenian passport , but a due to size a lot more practical.

In Spain citizens, resident foreigners and companies have similar but distinct identity numbers, some with prefix letters, all with a check-code [69].

This number is the same for tax, social security and all legal purposes. Without this number or a foreign equivalent such as a passport number a contract may not be enforceable.

In Spain the formal identity number on an ID card is the most important piece of identification. It is used in all public and private transactions.

It is required to open a bank account, to sign a contract, to have state insurance and to register at a university and should be shown when being fined by a police officer.

The card also constitutes a valid travel document within the European Union. However a NIE is issued for life and does not change and can be used for the same purposes.

Sweden does not have a legal statute for compulsory identity documents. These include but are not limited to banking and age verification.

Without Swedish identity documents difficulties can occur accessing health care services, receiving prescription medications and getting salaries or grants.

From , EU passports have been accepted for these services due to EU legislation with exceptions including banking , but non-EU passports are not accepted.

Identity cards have therefore become an important part of everyday life. There are currently three public authorities that issue ID-cards.

The tax office Skatteverket , the Police and the transport board. The tax office cards can only be used within Sweden to validate a persons identity, but they can be obtained both by Swedish citizens and those that currently reside in Sweden.

A Swedish personal identity number is required. It is possible to get one without having any Swedish id-card. In this case a person holding such a card must guarantee the identity, and the person must be a verifiable relative or the boss at the company the person has been working or a few other verifiable people.

The Police can only issue identity documents to Swedish citizens. They issue an internationally recognised id-card according to EU standard usable for intra- European travel, and Swedish passports which are acceptable as identity documents worldwide.

The Transport board issues driving licences which are valid as identity documents in Sweden. To obtain one, one must be approved as a driver and strictly have another Swedish identity document as proof of identity.

In the past there have been certain groups that have experienced problems obtaining valid identification documents. Since July , the tax office has begun to issue identity cards and this has simplified the identity validation process for foreign passport holders.

Swiss citizens have no obligation of identification in Switzerland and thus, are not required by law to be able to show a valid identity document upon request by a police officer or similar official.

Furthermore, identity documents are required when opening a bank account or when dealing with public administration.

Swiss passport [78] is needed only for e. Identity cards were first proposed in the mids for people attending football matches, following a series of high-profile hooliganism incidents involving English football fans.

However, this proposed identity card scheme never went ahead as Lord Taylor of Gosforth ruled it out as "unworkable" in the Taylor Report of The UK Labour government progressively introduced compulsory identity cards for non-EU residents in Britain starting late After the general election a new government was formed, comprising a coalition between two parties that had pledged to scrap ID cards — the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats — and the Home Office announced that the national identity register had been destroyed on 10 February Identity cards for British nationals were introduced in on a voluntary basis.

Only workers in certain high-security professions, such as airport workers, were required to have an identity card, and this general lack of ID being compulsory tends to remain the case today.

Driving licences , particularly the photocard driving licence introduced in , and passports are now the most widely used ID documents in the United Kingdom, but the former cannot be used as travel documents, except within the Common Travel Area.

However, driving licences from the UK and other EU countries are usually accepted within other EEA countries for identity verification.

Given that passports do not fit in a typical wallet or purse , most people do not carry their passports in public without an advance that they are going to need them.

Colloquially, in day-to-day life, most authorities do not ask for identification from individuals in a sudden, spot check type manner, such as by police or security guards, although this may become a concern in instances of stop and search.

There are also various PASS -accredited cards, used mainly for proof-of-age purposes, but they are not very commonly carried other than by those aged in their late teens or early twenties who do not drive and frequently purchase age-restricted goods [ citation needed ].

Belarus has combined the international passport and the internal passport into one document which is compulsory from age It follows the international passport convention but has extra pages for domestic use.

Bosnia and Herzegovina allows every person over the age of 15 to apply for an ID card, and all citizens over the age of 18 must have the national ID card with them at all times.

A penalty is issued if the citizen does not have the acquired ID card on them or if the citizen refuses to show proof of identification. The Macedonian identity card Macedonian: The document is issued by the police on behalf of the Ministry of Interior.

Every person over 18 can get and must get an identity card. In Moldova Identity Cards Romanian: Buletin de identitate are being issued since The first person to get identity card was former president of Moldova — Mircea Snegur.

Since then all the Moldovan citizens are required to have and use it inside the country. State company "Registru" is responsible for issuing Identity cards and for storing data of all Moldovan citizens.

It can be used for international travel to Bosnia and Herzegovina , Serbia , Macedonia , Kosovo and Albania instead of the passport.

Internal passports are issued by the Main Directorate for Migration Affairs to all citizens who reach their 14th birthday and do not reside outside Russia.

They are re-issued at the age 20 and The internal passport is commonly considered the only acceptable ID document in governmental offices, banks, while traveling by train or plane, getting a subscription service, etc.

If the person does not have an internal passport i. Kosovo issues its own identity cards. These documents are accepted by Serbia when used as identification while crossing the Serbia-Kosovo border.

The Ukrainian identity card or Passport of the Citizen of Ukraine also known as the Internal passport or Passport Card is an identity document issued to citizens of Ukraine.

Every Ukrainian citizen aged 14 [86] or above and permanently residing in Ukraine must possess an identity card issued by local authorities of the State Migration Service of Ukraine.

Ukrainian identity cards are valid for 10 years or 4 years, if issued for citizens aged 14 but less than 18 and afterwards must be exchanged for a new document.

The Turkish national ID card Turkish: Cards for males and females have a different color. The front shows the first and last name of the holder, first name of legal ascendant s , birth date and place, and an 11 digit ID number.

The back shows marital status, religious affiliation, the region of the county of origin, and the date of issue of the card. On February 2, the European Court of Human Rights ruled in a 6 to 1 vote that the religious affiliation section of the Turkish identity card violated articles 6, 9, and 12 of the European Convention of Human Rights, to which Turkey is a signatory.

The ruling should coerce the Turkish government to completely omit religious affiliation on future identity cards.

The Turkish police are allowed to ask any person to show ID, and refusing to comply may lead to arrest. It can be used for international travel to Northern Cyprus , Georgia and Ukraine instead of a passport.

Ministry of Interior of Turkey has released EU-like identity cards for all Turkish citizens starting from New identity cards are fully and can be used as a bank card, bus ticket or at international trips.

In Canada, different forms of identification documentation are used, but there is no de jure national identity card. The Canadian passport is issued by the federal national government, and the provinces and territories issue various documents which can be used for identification purposes.

The widespread usage of these two documents for identification purposes has made them de facto identity cards. The bearer is required by law to keep the address up to date.

For travel abroad, a passport is almost always required. There are a few minor exceptions to this rule; required documentation to travel among North American countries is subject to the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative , such as the NEXUS programme and the Enhanced Drivers License programme implemented by a few provincial governments as a pilot project.

These programmes have not yet gained widespread acceptance, and the Canadian passport remains the most useful and widely accepted international travel document.

Every Costa Rican citizen must carry an identity card immediately after turning Each card has a unique number composed of nine numerical digits, the first of them being the province where the citizen was born with other significance in special cases such as granted citizenship to foreigners, adopted persons or in rare cases with old people where no birth certificate was processed at birth ; after this digit, two blocks of four digits follow; the combination corresponds to the unique identifier of the citizen.

It is widely requested as part of every legal and financial purpose, often requested at payment with credit or debit cards for identification guarantee and requested for buying alcoholic beverages or cigarettes or upon entrance to adults-only places like bars.

It is a KB Combi Smart Card, where the electronic chip includes personal information, 2 fingerprints, 4-digit pin code, digital signature, and certificates digital and encryption.

Personal photo, IDN, name, date of birth, signature, nationality, and the ID card expiry date are fields visible on the physical card.

In the UAE it is used as an official identification document for all individuals to benefit from services in the government, some of the non-government, and private entities in the UAE.

The ID card could also be used by citizens as an official travel document between GCC countries instead of using passports. The implementation of the national ID program in the UAE enhanced security of the individuals by protecting their identities and preventing identity theft.

National identity cards issued to citizens of the EEA European Union , Iceland , Liechtenstein , Norway and Switzerland , which states EEA or Swiss citizenship, can not only be used as an identity document within the home country, but also as a travel document to exercise the right of free movement in the EEA and Switzerland.

In this respect, the UK Presidency put forward a proposal for the EU-wide use of biometrics in national identity cards". Since , all newly issued Belgian identity cards have a chip eID card , and roll-out of these cards is expected to be complete in the course of The eID cards can be used both in the public and private sector for identification and for the creation of legally binding electronic signatures.

Until end Belgian consulates issued old style ID cards x 75 mm to Belgian citizens who were permanently residing in their jurisdiction and who chose to be registered at the consulate which is strongly advised.

Since Belgian consulates issue electronic ID cards, the electronic chip on which is not activated however.

In Bulgaria , it is obligatory to possess an identity card Bulgarian — лична карта, lichna karta at the age of All persons over the age of 18 must have an Identity Card and carry it at all times.

The design of the Croatian ID card is prepared for future installation of an Electronic identity card chip, which is set for implementation in The acquisition and possession of a Civil Identity Card is compulsory for any eligible person who has reached twelve years of age.

On 29 January , it was announced that all future IDs to be issued will be biometric. It is a valid travel document for the entire European Union.

An identity card with a photo is issued to all citizens of the Czech Republic at the age of It is officially recognised by all member states of the European Union for intra EU travel.

Travelling outside the EU mostly requires the Czech passport. Denmark is one of few EU countries that currently do not issue national identity cards not counting driving licences and passports issued for other purposes.

Danish citizens are not required by law to carry an identity card. A traditional identity document without photo , the personal identification number certificate Danish: Personnummerbevis is of little use in Danish society, as it has been largely replaced by the much more versatile National Health Insurance Card Danish: Sundhedskortet which contains the same information and more.

The National Health Insurance Card is issued to all citizens age 12 and above. It is commonly referred to as an identity card despite the fact it has no photo of the holder.

Both certificates retrieve their information from the Civil Registration System. However, the personnummerbevis is still issued today and has been since September A foreign citizen without driving skills living in Denmark can not get such documents.

Foreign driving licenses and passports are accepted with limitations. A foreigner living in Denmark will have a residence permit with their personal identification number and a photo.

In Denmark, since , counties have issued a "photo identity card" Danish: Until , the national debit card Dankort contained a photo of the holder and was widely accepted as an identity card.

The Danish banks lobbied successfully to have pictures removed from the national debit cards and so since the Dankort has no longer contained a photo.

Hence it is rarely accepted for identification. The Estonian identity card Estonian: An Estonian identity card is officially recognised by all member states of the European Union for intra EU travel.

For travelling outside the EU, Estonian citizens may also require a passport. Under Estonian law, since 15 December the cryptographic signature is legally equivalent to a manual signature.

In February , Estonia was the first country in the world to institute electronic voting for parliamentary elections. This, along with the passport, is one of two official identity documents.

Driving licenses and KELA social security cards with a photo are also widely used for general identification purposes even though they are not officially recognized as such.

However, KELA has ended the practice of issuing social security cards with the photograph of the bearer, while it has become possible to embed the social security information onto the national ID card.

For most purposes when identification is required, only valid documents are ID card, passport or driving license.

However, a citizen is not required to carry any of these. Compulsory identity documents were created before, for workers from to , nomads gens du voyage in , and foreigners in during World War I.

Identity cards were valid for 10 years, had to be updated within a year in case of change of residence, and their renewal required paying a fee.

Under the Vichy regime , in addition to the face photograph, the family name, first names, date and place of birth, the card included the national identity number managed by the national statistics INSEE , which is also used as the national service registration number, as the Social Security account number for health and retirement benefits, for access to court files and for tax purposes.

For financial transactions, ID cards and passports are almost always accepted as proof of identity. For transactions by cheque involving a larger sum, two different ID documents are frequently requested by merchants.

The current identification cards are now issued free of charge and optional, and are valid for ten years for minors, and fifteen for adults [53].

Another non-compulsory project is being discussed. It is compulsory for all German citizens aged 16 or older to possess either a Personalausweis identity card or a passport but not to carry one.

Police officers and other officials have a right to demand to see one of those documents obligation of identification ; however the law does not state that one is obliged to submit the document at that very moment.

Beginning in November , German ID cards are issued in the ID-1 format and can also contain an integrated digital signature, if so desired. The cards have a photograph and a chip with biometric data, including, optionally, fingerprints.

The cards issued were originally folded cardboard, similar to the wartime UK Identity cards abolished in There were different colours for British and non-British residents.

Gibraltar requires all residents to hold identity cards, which are issued free. In the cardboard ID card was replaced with a laminated version.

However, although valid as a travel document to the UK, they were not accepted by Spain. A new version in an EU compliant format was issued and is valid for use around the EU although as very few are seen there are sometimes problems in its use, even in the UK.

ID cards are needed for some financial transactions, but apart from that and to cross the frontier with Spain, they are not in common use.

There are also two optional fields designed to facilitate emergency medical care: ABO and Rhesus factor blood typing. Since , name fields have been filled in both Greek and Latin characters.

According to the Signpost Service of the European Commission [reply to Enquiry ], old type Greek ID cards "are as valid as the new type according to Greek law and thus they constitute valid travel documents that all other EU Member States are obliged to accept".

In addition to being equivalent to passports within the European Economic Area , Greek ID cards are the principal means of identification of voters during elections.

Since , the procedure to issue an ID card has been automated and now all citizens over 12 years of age must have an ID card, which is issued within one work day.

For instance, it is required to perform banking transactions if the teller personnel is unfamiliar with the apparent account holder, to interact with the Citizen Service Bureaus KEP , [54] receive parcels or registered mail etc.

Citizens are also required to produce their ID card at the request of law enforcement personnel. All the above functions can be fulfilled also with a valid Greek passport e.

The third type is a plastic card with the photo and the signature of the holder digitally reproduced. These are generally called Personal Identity Card.

Personal identity numbers have been issued since ; they have the following format in numbers: They are no longer used as a personal identification number, but as a statistical signature.

The Personal Identity Card is mandatory to vote in state elections or open a bank account in the country. ID cards are issued to permanent residents of Hungary; if a foreign citizen, the card has a different color.

Identity documents are not mandatory to carry by law unless driving a car , but can be needed for bank services, age verification and other situations.

Ireland does not issue mandatory national identity cards as such. Except for a brief period during the second world war when the Irish Department of External Affairs issued ID Cards to those wishing to travel to the UK, [55] Ireland has never issued national identity cards as such.

Identity documentation is optional for Irish and British citizens. Nevertheless, identification is mandatory to obtain certain services such as air travel, banking, interactions regarding welfare and public services, age verification and additional situations.

Ireland has issued optional passport cards since October Ireland issues a "Public Services Card" which are useful when identification is needed for contacts regarding welfare and public services.

They have photos but not birth dates and are therefore not accepted by banks. In a Oireachtas committee hearing held on February 22, , Tim Duggan of that department stated "A national ID card is an entirely different idea.

People are generally compelled to carry such a card. All Italian citizens are entitled to request an identity card which would be issued by the municipality in which they live.

The card lasts ten years and is a valid document to leave the country when travelling to another EU country.

A classic Italian identity card now in the process of being replaced by a newer template has four pages, containing:.

A field for fingerprints has been present for a long time at the bottom of the third page, but is rarely if ever used. Also, physical features are normally not measured rigorously, but are just verbally asked to the applicant such as height or quickly ascertained by administrative personnel on the spot, with no checks for hair dying or cosmetic lenses.

The classic Italian ID card is made of paper, not plastic, and its lamination with plastic pouches is explicitly forbidden, because it would interfere with the anti-forging heat sensitive pattern on the back of the card see reference.

Furthermore, the usage of paper makes the card easy to forge, and foreign countries outside the EU sometimes refuse to accept it as a valid document.

These common criticism were considered in the development of the Italian electronic identity card , which is in the more common credit-card format. All foreigners in Italy are required by law to have an ID with them at all times.

Dutch citizens from the age of 14 are required to be able to show a valid identity document upon request by a police officer or similar official.

Furthermore, identity documents are required when opening bank accounts and upon start of work for a new employer.

Official identity documents for residents in the Netherlands are:. For the purpose of identification in public but not for other purposes , also a Dutch driving license often may serve as an identity document.

In Norway there is no law penalising non-possession of an identity document. But there are rules requiring it for services like banking, air travel and voting where personal recognition or other identification methods have not been possible.

The following documents are generally considered valid varying a little, since no law lists them: There is no ID card for anyone except bank ID card normally printed on the reverse of a credit card.

To get a bank ID card either a Nordic passport or another passport together with Norwegian residence and work permit is needed.

There is an ongoing plan to introduce a national ID card accrediting Norwegian citizenship, usable for travel within the EU, and for general identification.

The plan started in and has been delayed several times and is now expected in Polish citizens living permanently abroad are entitled, but not required, to have one.

All Portuguese citizens are required by law to obtain an Identity Card as they turn 6 years of age. They are not required to carry with them always but are obligated to present them to the lawful authorities if requested.

The old format of the cards yellow laminated paper document featured a portrait of the bearer, their fingerprint, and the name of parent s , among other information.

The CI offers proof of the identity, address, sex and other data of the possessor. It has to be renewed every 10 years. It can be used instead of a passport for travel inside the European Union and several other countries outside the EU.

Its validity extends for up to 1 year. It cannot be used in order to travel within the EU, unlike the normal ID card.

However, these are accepted only in limited circumstances and cannot take the place of the ID Card in most cases.

The ID Card is mandatory for dealing with government institutions, banks or currency exchange shops. A valid passport may also be accepted, but usually only for foreigners.

In addition, citizens can be expected to provide the personal identification number CNP in many circumstances; purposes range from simple unique identification and internal book-keeping for example when drawing up the papers for the warranty of purchased goods to being asked for identification by the police.

Presenting the ID Card is preferred but not mandatory when asked by police officers; however, in such cases people are expected to provide a CNP or alternate means of identification which can be checked on the spot via radio if needed.

The information on the ID Card is required to be kept updated by the owner; current address of domicile in particular.

Doing otherwise can expose the citizen to certain fines or be denied service by those institutions that require a valid, up to date Card.

In spite of this, it is common for people to let the information lapse or go around with expired ID Cards. The Slovak ID card Slovak: It is issued to citizens of the Slovak Republic who are 15 or older.

For travel outside the EU, Slovak citizens may also require a passport , which is a legally accepted form of picture ID as well.

Police officers and some [ who? If one fails to comply, law enforcement officers are allowed to insist on personal identification at the police station.

Every Slovenian citizen regardless of age has the right to acquire an Identity Card Slovene: Osebna izkaznica where every citizen of the Republic of Slovenia of 18 years of age or older is obliged by law to acquire one and carry it at all times or any other Identity document with a picture i.

With exception of the Faroe Islands and Greenland, though it may be used to travel outside of the EU: The front side displays the name and surname, sex, nationality, date of birth and expiration date of the card, as well as the number of the ID card a black and white photograph and a signature.

Depending on the holders age and sometimes also other factors , the card had a validity of 5 years or 10 years, and 1 year for foreigners living in Slovenia.

In Slovenia the ID cards importance is equaled only by the Slovenian passport , but a due to size a lot more practical. In Spain citizens, resident foreigners and companies have similar but distinct identity numbers, some with prefix letters, all with a check-code [69].

This number is the same for tax, social security and all legal purposes. Without this number or a foreign equivalent such as a passport number a contract may not be enforceable.

In Spain the formal identity number on an ID card is the most important piece of identification. It is used in all public and private transactions.

It is required to open a bank account, to sign a contract, to have state insurance and to register at a university and should be shown when being fined by a police officer.

The card also constitutes a valid travel document within the European Union. However a NIE is issued for life and does not change and can be used for the same purposes.

Sweden does not have a legal statute for compulsory identity documents. These include but are not limited to banking and age verification.

Without Swedish identity documents difficulties can occur accessing health care services, receiving prescription medications and getting salaries or grants.

From , EU passports have been accepted for these services due to EU legislation with exceptions including banking , but non-EU passports are not accepted.

Identity cards have therefore become an important part of everyday life. There are currently three public authorities that issue ID-cards. The tax office Skatteverket , the Police and the transport board.

The tax office cards can only be used within Sweden to validate a persons identity, but they can be obtained both by Swedish citizens and those that currently reside in Sweden.

A Swedish personal identity number is required. It is possible to get one without having any Swedish id-card.

In this case a person holding such a card must guarantee the identity, and the person must be a verifiable relative or the boss at the company the person has been working or a few other verifiable people.

The Police can only issue identity documents to Swedish citizens. They issue an internationally recognised id-card according to EU standard usable for intra- European travel, and Swedish passports which are acceptable as identity documents worldwide.

The Transport board issues driving licences which are valid as identity documents in Sweden. To obtain one, one must be approved as a driver and strictly have another Swedish identity document as proof of identity.

In the past there have been certain groups that have experienced problems obtaining valid identification documents. Since July , the tax office has begun to issue identity cards and this has simplified the identity validation process for foreign passport holders.

Swiss citizens have no obligation of identification in Switzerland and thus, are not required by law to be able to show a valid identity document upon request by a police officer or similar official.

Furthermore, identity documents are required when opening a bank account or when dealing with public administration. Swiss passport [78] is needed only for e.

Identity cards were first proposed in the mids for people attending football matches, following a series of high-profile hooliganism incidents involving English football fans.

However, this proposed identity card scheme never went ahead as Lord Taylor of Gosforth ruled it out as "unworkable" in the Taylor Report of The UK Labour government progressively introduced compulsory identity cards for non-EU residents in Britain starting late After the general election a new government was formed, comprising a coalition between two parties that had pledged to scrap ID cards — the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats — and the Home Office announced that the national identity register had been destroyed on 10 February Identity cards for British nationals were introduced in on a voluntary basis.

Only workers in certain high-security professions, such as airport workers, were required to have an identity card, and this general lack of ID being compulsory tends to remain the case today.

Driving licences , particularly the photocard driving licence introduced in , and passports are now the most widely used ID documents in the United Kingdom, but the former cannot be used as travel documents, except within the Common Travel Area.

However, driving licences from the UK and other EU countries are usually accepted within other EEA countries for identity verification.

Given that passports do not fit in a typical wallet or purse , most people do not carry their passports in public without an advance that they are going to need them.

Colloquially, in day-to-day life, most authorities do not ask for identification from individuals in a sudden, spot check type manner, such as by police or security guards, although this may become a concern in instances of stop and search.

There are also various PASS -accredited cards, used mainly for proof-of-age purposes, but they are not very commonly carried other than by those aged in their late teens or early twenties who do not drive and frequently purchase age-restricted goods [ citation needed ].

Belarus has combined the international passport and the internal passport into one document which is compulsory from age It follows the international passport convention but has extra pages for domestic use.

Bosnia and Herzegovina allows every person over the age of 15 to apply for an ID card, and all citizens over the age of 18 must have the national ID card with them at all times.

A penalty is issued if the citizen does not have the acquired ID card on them or if the citizen refuses to show proof of identification.

The Macedonian identity card Macedonian: The document is issued by the police on behalf of the Ministry of Interior. Every person over 18 can get and must get an identity card.

In Moldova Identity Cards Romanian: Buletin de identitate are being issued since The first person to get identity card was former president of Moldova — Mircea Snegur.

Since then all the Moldovan citizens are required to have and use it inside the country. State company "Registru" is responsible for issuing Identity cards and for storing data of all Moldovan citizens.

It can be used for international travel to Bosnia and Herzegovina , Serbia , Macedonia , Kosovo and Albania instead of the passport.

Internal passports are issued by the Main Directorate for Migration Affairs to all citizens who reach their 14th birthday and do not reside outside Russia.

They are re-issued at the age 20 and The internal passport is commonly considered the only acceptable ID document in governmental offices, banks, while traveling by train or plane, getting a subscription service, etc.

If the person does not have an internal passport i. Kosovo issues its own identity cards. These documents are accepted by Serbia when used as identification while crossing the Serbia-Kosovo border.

The Ukrainian identity card or Passport of the Citizen of Ukraine also known as the Internal passport or Passport Card is an identity document issued to citizens of Ukraine.

Every Ukrainian citizen aged 14 [86] or above and permanently residing in Ukraine must possess an identity card issued by local authorities of the State Migration Service of Ukraine.

Ukrainian identity cards are valid for 10 years or 4 years, if issued for citizens aged 14 but less than 18 and afterwards must be exchanged for a new document.

The Turkish national ID card Turkish: Cards for males and females have a different color. The front shows the first and last name of the holder, first name of legal ascendant s , birth date and place, and an 11 digit ID number.

The back shows marital status, religious affiliation, the region of the county of origin, and the date of issue of the card.

On February 2, the European Court of Human Rights ruled in a 6 to 1 vote that the religious affiliation section of the Turkish identity card violated articles 6, 9, and 12 of the European Convention of Human Rights, to which Turkey is a signatory.

The ruling should coerce the Turkish government to completely omit religious affiliation on future identity cards. The Turkish police are allowed to ask any person to show ID, and refusing to comply may lead to arrest.

It can be used for international travel to Northern Cyprus , Georgia and Ukraine instead of a passport. Ministry of Interior of Turkey has released EU-like identity cards for all Turkish citizens starting from New identity cards are fully and can be used as a bank card, bus ticket or at international trips.

In Canada, different forms of identification documentation are used, but there is no de jure national identity card. The Canadian passport is issued by the federal national government, and the provinces and territories issue various documents which can be used for identification purposes.

The widespread usage of these two documents for identification purposes has made them de facto identity cards. The bearer is required by law to keep the address up to date.

For travel abroad, a passport is almost always required. There are a few minor exceptions to this rule; required documentation to travel among North American countries is subject to the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative , such as the NEXUS programme and the Enhanced Drivers License programme implemented by a few provincial governments as a pilot project.

These programmes have not yet gained widespread acceptance, and the Canadian passport remains the most useful and widely accepted international travel document.

Every Costa Rican citizen must carry an identity card immediately after turning Each card has a unique number composed of nine numerical digits, the first of them being the province where the citizen was born with other significance in special cases such as granted citizenship to foreigners, adopted persons or in rare cases with old people where no birth certificate was processed at birth ; after this digit, two blocks of four digits follow; the combination corresponds to the unique identifier of the citizen.

It is widely requested as part of every legal and financial purpose, often requested at payment with credit or debit cards for identification guarantee and requested for buying alcoholic beverages or cigarettes or upon entrance to adults-only places like bars.

The card must be renewed every ten years and is freely issued again if lost. On the back, there is again the identification number, birth date, where the citizen issues its vote for national elections or referendums, birthplace, gender, date when it must be renewed and a matrix code that includes all this information and even a digitized fingerprint of the thumb and index finger.

A passport is also issued with the same identification number used in the ID card. The same situation occurs with the Social Security number; it is the same number used for the ID card.

This National ID card is issued to all legal residents of adult age. It is issued free of charge [90] by the "Junta Central Electoral" Central Voting Committee to all Dominicans not living abroad at the time of reaching adulthood 16 years of age or younger is they are legally emancipated.

Foreigners that have taken permanent residence and have not yet applied for Dominican naturalization i.

Every citizen above 18 years must carry this ID for identification purposes at any time. It is not based on a smartcard but on a standard plastic card with two-dimensional bar-coded information with picture and signature.

It is based on a smartcard with a chip and includes an electronic signature and several measures against fraud. Not mandatory, but needed in almost all official documents, the CURP is the standardized version of an identity document.

It actually could be a printed green wallet-sized card without a photo or simply an character identification key printed on a birth or death certificate.

Also, minors must produce their CURP when applying for a passport or being registered at Public Health services by their parent s. Most adults need the CURP code too, since it is required for almost all governmental paperwork like tax filings and passport applications.

To have a CURP issued for a person, a birth certificate or similar proof must be presented to the issuing authorities to prove that the information supplied on the application is true.

Foreign-born Mexican naturalized citizens must present their naturalization certificate. On February 13, the Mexican government designated the state of Tamaulipas to start procedures for issuing a pilot program of the national Mexican ID card [ citation needed ].

There is no compulsory federal-level ID card issued to all US citizens. US citizens and nationals may obtain passports or US passport cards if they chose to, but the alternatives described below are more popular.

In addition, many schools issue student and teacher ID cards. Federal agencies would reject licenses or identity cards that do not comply, which would force Americans accessing everything from airplanes to national parks and courthouses to have the federally mandated cards.

At airports, those not having compliant licenses or cards would simply be redirected to a secondary screening location. The bill takes place as governments are growing more interested in implanting technology in ID cards to make them smarter and more secure.

In , the U. Seventeen states, however, have passed statutes opposing or refusing to implement the Real ID Act.

The United States passport verifies both personal identity and citizenship, but is not mandatory for citizens to possess within the country and is issued by the US State Department on a discretionary basis.

Since February 1, , U. TSA regulations list the passport card as an acceptable identity document at airport security checkpoints. Citizenship and Immigration Services has indicated that the U.

A child born in the US is in nearly all cases except for children of foreign diplomats automatically a US citizen. They have become the de facto national identification number for federal and state taxation, private financial services, and identification with various companies.

SSNs do not establish citizenship because they can also be issued to permanent residents as well as citizens. Identity and citizenship is established by presenting a passport alone, but this must be accompanied by a Social Security card for taxation ID purposes.

In this case, an applicant without a passport may sign an affidavit of citizenship or be required to present a birth certificate.

They must still also submit their Social Security number. Utility bills or other pieces of official printed mail can also suffice for this purpose.

In the case of voting, citizenship must also be proven with a passport, birth certificate, or signed citizenship affidavit.

It was created in after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government.

The highest tier of local government were the nine regions of England: These were created in as Government Offices , used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in the regional government offices were abolished.

After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight.

London accepted in However, when the proposal was rejected by the northern England devolution referendums, in the North East, further referendums were cancelled.

Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils.

Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council.

They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities.

Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs , plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation.

Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly.

It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: England is closer to the European continent than any other part of mainland Britain.

The northern uplands include the Pennines , a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills , straddling the border between England and Scotland.

The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire.

They contain two national parks , the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District. In the West Country , Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate ; both are national parks.

The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills , Chiltern Hills , North and South Downs ; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.

England has a temperate maritime climate: The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast , while July is normally the warmest month.

Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean , its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.

The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England [] and one of the busiest cities in the world.

It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.

While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham , Sheffield , Manchester, Liverpool , Leeds , Newcastle , Bradford , Nottingham , population size is not a prerequisite for city status.

England is a leader in the chemical [] and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry , and the manufacturing side of the software industry.

Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since it has been a state-owned institution.

England is highly industrialised, but since the s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.

The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals , cars although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover , Lotus , Jaguar and Bentley , crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm , aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.

Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30, engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors.

With a workforce of over 12, people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.

The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellites , is also part of Astrium. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins , the first secretary of the Royal Society , in As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel , best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway , a series of famous steamships , and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.

With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton business partner of James Watt is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history.

Inventions and discoveries of the English include: Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation , Newtonian mechanics , and calculus , and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity.

The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. There are many motorways in England , and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road , which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle [] much of this section is motorway and onward to the Scottish border.

The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. There is a rapid transit network in two English cities: Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge.

These lines are mostly standard gauge single , double or quadruple track though there are also a few narrow gauge lines.

There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel , which was completed in England has extensive domestic and international aviation links.

The National Health Service NHS is the publicly funded healthcare system in England responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country.

It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report , prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge.

The average life expectancy of people in England is The English people are a British people. In , when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million.

Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the s: England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people , recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling.

During the English Renaissance , many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity , and includes language schooling , tourism spending, and publishing.

There is no legislation mandating an official language for England, [] but English is the only language used for official business. As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages , Cornish and Welsh.

Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived, [] [] and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts and , many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border.

Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century, [] and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.

State schools teach students a second language , usually French, German or Spanish. However, following the census data released by the Office for National Statistics , figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.

In the census, The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head.

Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation , the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.

A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley.

The patron saint of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination.

There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since Especially since the s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration.

A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions , Druidry , and Heathenry.

According to the UK Census , there are roughly 53, people who identify as Pagan in England, [nb 5] and 3, in Wales , [nb 5] including 11, Wiccans in England and in Wales.

The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education.

Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school.

Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations.

Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. Further education colleges particularly sixth form colleges often form part of a secondary school site.

A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university. Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive , in some areas there are selective intake grammar schools , to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam.

Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England.

Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years.

Since the establishment of Bedford College London , Girton College Cambridge and Somerville College Oxford in the 19th century , women also can obtain a university degree.

Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno — Saxon monasticism , [] [] to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings.

After the Norman conquest in various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion.

Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral , Westminster Abbey and York Minster.

Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch , was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically.

In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.

Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this.

With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.

Since the s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.

English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions.

Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith , [] others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.

During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth.

Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore. Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry , Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.

The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.

Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast , featuring a roasted joint usually beef, lamb , chicken or pork served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.

Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest.

Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries , have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick — all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding.

Sweet pastries include scones either plain or containing dried fruit served with jam or cream, dried fruit loaves, Eccles cakes and mince pies as well as a wide range of sweet or spiced biscuits.

Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza , [] and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers , such as bitter , mild , stout and brown ale.

The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire , Northumberland and Cumbria , but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.

There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein , natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.

Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth , [] while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.

More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. The English played a significant role in romanticism: In response to the Industrial Revolution , agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett , G.

Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism , Arthur Penty , and cooperative movement advocate G.

Cole are somewhat related. Wells and Lewis Carroll. Lawrence , Virginia Woolf , C. Tolkien , and J. The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties , jigs , hornpipes and dance music.

It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. German-born George Frideric Handel became a British subject [] and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah , Water Music , and Music for the Royal Fireworks.

In the field of popular music , many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time.

Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury , V Festival , and the Reading and Leeds Festivals.

Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers. A Story of the London Fog , helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his film, Blackmail , is often regarded as the first British sound feature film.

Major film studios in England include Pinewood , Elstree and Shepperton. Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises Harry Potter and James Bond.

English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England.

It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Its collection of more than seven million objects [] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, [] sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.

England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world. Sports originating in England include association football , [] cricket , rugby union , rugby league , tennis , boxing , badminton, squash , [] rounders , [] hockey , snooker , billiards , darts , table tennis, bowls , netball , thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting.

It has helped the development of golf , sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team , whose home venue is Wembley Stadium , played Scotland in the first ever international football match in As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants.

Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.

The climax of the Ashes was viewed by 7. However they have hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in , winning this format in beating rivals Australia in the final.

William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. England competes in the Commonwealth Games , held every four years.

Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England.

Rugby union originated in Rugby School , Warwickshire in the early 19th century. England was one of the host nations of the competition in the Rugby World Cup and also hosted the Rugby World Cup.

Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in Since , the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team , which won three World Cups but is now retired.

Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire , Yorkshire and Cumbria. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors , Hull F.

Golf has been prominent in England; due in part to its cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of Golf.

England has produced grand slam winners: The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup , is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy.

Tennis was created in Birmingham in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.

Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles [] and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins.

English women who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones in and Virginia Wade in In boxing , under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules , England has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies.

Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. England also has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle racing , the premier championship of motorcycle road racing , and produced several World Champions across all the various class of motorcycle: Darts is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game.

Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships. Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa.

The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean.

A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George , along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner.

The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace. It is also known as the Rose of England.

The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy.

England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: St George is the patron saint of England.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see England disambiguation. Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction.

England in the Middle Ages. East Riding of Yorkshire. Ceremonial counties of England. List of places in England.

List of English inventions and discoveries and Royal Society. English diaspora , Cornish people , and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom.

English language in England. English language , History of the English language , and Cornish language. Official, but not majority language.

History of Christianity in England. List of universities in England. Fish and chips is a very popular dish in England. Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages.

Chicken tikka masala , , adapted from Indian chicken tikka and called "a true British national dish. This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself.

This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. Folk music of England. Music of the United Kingdom. Cinema of the United Kingdom.

List of museums in England. National symbols of England. England portal United Kingdom portal. Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number.

Other Pagan paths, such as Druidism, and general "Pagan" have not been included in this number. Scottish students attending Scottish universities have their fees paid by the devolved Scottish Parliament.

Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 18 April Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 1 February Archived from the original on 9 February International Organization for Standardization.

Archived from the original on 16 May Archived from the original on 27 April Accessed 31 May Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 12 July Retrieved 5 September The Principles of Gaelic Grammar.

Oliver, Boyd and Tweeddale. There are two very large islands in it, called the British Isles, Albion and Ierne; On Coming-to-be and Passing Away.

Translated by Forster, E. Retrieved 20 December A Geo East Project. Archived from the original on 5 March Tectonic and structural background".

Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 23 December Archived from the original on 22 October Retrieved 22 December War, Peace and Conquest in the Roman World.

Archived from the original on 3 July Retrieved 24 December Anglo-Saxons, to ". Retrieved 3 December Archived from the original on 24 June Retrieved 21 September Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 26 December Archived from the original on 18 January England Under the Tudors.

Archived from the original on 9 June Archived from the original PDF on 25 March Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 8 August Pouwels 27 November Retrieved 25 September Archived from the original on 21 June Retrieved 10 December Entry on Sciencemuseum website.

Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 17 March Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 4 October The persistence of Victorian liberalism: The Politics of Social Reform in Britain, — From Abolition to the Vote".

Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle". Retrieved 2 December Devolution and Constitutional Change in the United Kingdom". The Journal of Federalism. Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 20 April Retrieved 16 August Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 5 October Retrieved 20 August Archived from the original PDF on 17 January Archived from the original PDF on 24 March Archived from the original on 16 November Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 16 June Archived from the original PDF on 5 December Retrieved 15 August Retrieved 5 December Archived from the original on 22 November Retrieved 17 August Archived from the original on 5 June Retrieved 6 December Retrieved 8 September Archived from the original on 27 October Archived from the original on 14 January Archived from the original on 29 August Retrieved 5 February

This is the only official form of identification for residents in Chile and is widely used and accepted as such. It actually could be a printed green wallet-sized card without a photo or simply an character identification key printed on a birth or death certificate. It also contains the documents expedition and expiration date. A Christmas carol p. Australia does not have casino slot jobs in las vegas national identity card. Retrieved 15 Bester innenverteidiger der welt The laminated cover itself is very simplistic and quite large for the paper it covers and the photo, although is standard sized 3x3. Henry Moore and his successors". Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate. Retrieved 10 August Kindereinträge im Reisepass eines Elternteils sind seit dem Danke im vorraus. Wird diese Kooperation nicht gleichzeitig aufgelöst, wird man auch danach noch mit dem normalen Perso nach GB kommen. Charing Cross ist einer real casino online free 17 Bahnhöfen, die von der Bahninfrastrukturgesellschaft Das Reisedokument wird beim Bürgeramt beantragt und Online casino bonus betrug können schnell, günstig und zuverlässig online mithilfe des Passfoto-Generators von Biometrisches-Passbild. Bislang war ein Personalausweis Pflicht. Diese gruppieren manche Mobilfunkanbieter trotzdem freiwillig in den Euro-Tarif ein — manche aber auch nicht. Danke für alle Antworten! In 2 Wochen fahren wir Klasse nach England. Das Reisedokument wird beim томас мюлер beantragt und Passbilder können schnell, casinò online und zuverlässig online mithilfe des Passfoto-Generators von Biometrisches-Passbild. Brauche ich zur Einreise einen Personalausweis oder reicht mein Reisepass? Da die Briten vermutlich auch sowas wie eine Visa-Pflicht für ihre Staatsangehörigen bei der Einreise in die EU vermeiden wollen, wird vermutlich versucht werden, die Reisebedingungen so zu belassen, wie sie sind. Dabei gilt ganz grundsätzlich: Kinderausweisen kann es zu Problemen bei der Einreise kommen. Danke im vorraus. Reicht es für die Einreise in die USA einen Maschienen lesbaren Reisepass zu haben oder muss er auch einen online casino la dolce vita chip haben?

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Allerdings versuchen die Airlines das Problem zu umgehen, indem sie in der EU Tochtergesellschaften gegründet haben. Jetzt stellt sich die Frage, ob künftig der Reisepass oder sogar ein Visum erforderlich ist. Bislang war ein Personalausweis Pflicht. Das Reisedokument muss bis zum Ende der Reise gültig sein. Muss ich wieder Roaming-Gebühren bezahlen? GB gehört noch zur EU. Um mögliche Änderungen der Einreisebestimmungen zu erfahren und die aktuellsten Einreiseinformationen zu erhalten, besuchen Sie bitte die Seite des Auswärtigen Amtes. In europäischen Ländern ist die Einreise meist mit dem Personalausweis möglich, steht jedoch eine Fernreise an, sollte hier eher auf den Reisepass gesetzt werden. Der zuletzt abgerufene Stand ist vom Bislang war ein Personalausweis Pflicht. Möchte nicht unbedingt noch los rennen und einen vorläufigen Personalausweis erstellen lassen, jedoch trotzdem sicher sein dass ich die Grenze passieren kann. Reicht ein Reisepass oder welche Ausweisdokumente werden benötigt? Das Reisedokument muss bis zum Ende der Reise gültig sein. Danke für alle Antworten! Das beträfe auch Passagiere, die einen Langstreckenflug mit Umstieg in London gebucht haben. Der Brexit ist noch lange nicht abgeschlossen.

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